Our mission

  • To develop, evaluate and validate novel non-invasive imaging and therapy methods and agents in SPECT, MRI and PET
  • To introduce these technologies into clinical practice
  • Educate and train scientists and clinicians in quantitative imaging and therapy research

Application - Open Positions

MD, VetMD topics, and postdoc postions
Medical students interested in interdisciplinary work and postdoctoral researchers with a strong background in molecular imaging or related fields are encouraged to apply directly via e-mail. Please include your CV, list of publications and briefly describe your research interests and project ideas.

PhD positions
There are currently no open positions

Master and similar projects

Motivated undergraduate students interested in joining the group for a semester project, Bachelor’s thesis, or Master’s thesis are encouraged to apply directly via e-mail. Please include your CV and briefly describe your research interests and project ideas.

Short CV - Prof. Dr. Stephan Nekolla

Stephan G. Nekolla is Director of Medical Physics at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Technical University of Munich .

Research interests

Prof. Dr. Nekolla's research areas are design, acquisition and analysis of PET, SPECT, MRI and CT studies, workflow considerations and quantification methods in clinical and preclinical studies. His primary focus is on the optimal use of non-invasive imaging to understand disease mechanisms in cardiology and oncology, their detection and therapy assessment. In particular, the use of hybrid devices such as SPECT/CT, PET/CT and PET/MRI systems, and their optimal use in cardiac and oncology imaging is of particular importance.

He is the author/co-author of more than 260 peer-reviewed publications, book chapters, and review articles. According to the Publons database, the articles have been cited over 11000 times (H-index: 60, L-1857-2013). He is or was PI or co-PI in several national or EU-funded projects involving complex imaging and analysis protocols.

For recent publications , please see the “News” tab or https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=nekolla-s&sort=date(link is external)

PET/MR Technology: Advancement and Challenges.

Bogdanovic B, Solari EL, Villagran Asiares A, McIntosh L, van Marwick S, Schachoff S, Nekolla SG. Semin Nucl Med. 2021 Dec 27:S0001-2998(21)00101-X. doi: 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2021.11.014. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34969520 Review

https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2021.11.014(link is external)


10 years of PET/MR: Looking back for a moment.

Nekolla SG. J Nucl Cardiol. 2020 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s12350-020-02358-z


Clinical quantitative cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial ischaemia.

Dewey M, Siebes M, Kachelrieß M, Kofoed KF, Maurovich-Horvat P, Nikolaou K, Bai W, Kofler A, Manka R, Kozerke S, Chiribiri A, Schaeffter T, Michallek F, Bengel F, Nekolla SG, Knaapen P, Lubberink M, Senior R, Tang MX, Piek JJ, van de Hoef T, Martens J, Schreiber L; Quantitative Cardiac Imaging Study Group.

Nat Rev Cardiol. 2020 Feb 24. doi: 10.1038/s41569-020-0341-8


What did we learn from PET/MR?

Schwaiger M, Nekolla SG.

J Nucl Cardiol. 2019 Aug 5. doi: 10.1007/s12350-019-01815-8


Cardiac PET/MRI—an update.

C. Rischpler , S. G. Nekolla, G. Heusch, L. Umutlu, T. Rassaf, P. Heusch, K. Herrmann, F. Nensa

European J Hybrid Imaging (2019) 3: 2.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s41824-018-0050-2(link is external)

Myocardial blood flow quantification conventional single photon tracers: Yet another critical appraisal : Atsutaka Okizaki et al: Noninvasive estimation of quantitative myocardial blood flow with Tc-99m MIBI by a compartment model analysis in rat.

Nekolla SG, Rischpler C.

J Nucl Cardiol. 2018 Nov 12. doi: 10.1007/s12350-018-01509-7


Hybrid cardiac imaging using PET/MRI: a joint position statement by the European Society of Cardiovascular Radiology (ESCR) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM).

Nensa F, Bamberg F, Rischpler C, Menezes L, Poeppel TD, la Fougère C, Beitzke D, Rasul S, Loewe C, Nikolaou K, Bucerius J, Kjaer A, Gutberlet M, Prakken NH, Vliegenthart R, Slart RHJA, Nekolla SG, Lassen ML, Pichler BJ, Schlosser T, Jacquier A, Quick HH, Schäfers M, Hacker M; European Society of Cardiovascular Radiology (ESCR); European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee.

Eur Radiol. 2018 May 2. doi: 10.1007/s00330-017-5008-4

Lost in quantification…: The influence of different software packages on flow quantification measures.

Rischpler C, Nekolla SG.

J Nucl Cardiol. 2018 Jan 16. doi: 10.1007/s12350-017-1159-6



Cardiovascular pre-clinical imaging.

Nekolla SG, Rischpler C, Paschali A, Anagnostopoulos C. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016 Dec 16.



One Coin, No Need to Flip: Shared PET Targets in Cancer and Coronary Artery Disease.

Paschali AN, Nekolla SG, Evangelou K, Cook GJ, Anagnostopoulos CD. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Nov 29:1-12.



PET/MR: Yet another Tesla?

Schwaiger M, Kunze K, Rischpler C, Nekolla SG. J Nucl Cardiol. 2016 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print]



PET/MR Imaging in Heart Disease. Rischpler C, Nekolla SG. PET Clin. 2016 Oct;11(4):465-77



Combined PET/MRI: from Status Quo to Status Go. Summary Report of the Fifth International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 15-19, 2016; Tübingen, Germany. Bailey DL, Pichler BJ, Gückel B, Barthel H, Beer AJ, Botnar R, Gillies R, Goh V, Gotthardt M, Hicks RJ, Lanzenberger R, la Fougere C, Lentschig M, Nekolla SG, Niederdraenk T, Nikolaou K, Nuyts J, Olego D, Riklund KÅ, Signore A, Schäfers M, Sossi V, Suminski M, Veit-Haibach P, Umutlu L, Wissmeyer M, Beyer T. Mol Imaging Biol. 2016 Oct;18(5):637-50



Assessing myocardial metabolism with hybrid PET imaging: instrumentation, concepts, and workflows.

Nekolla SG, Rischpler C. Curr Pharm Dec. 2015



The foundation layer of quantitative cardiac PET/MRI: Attenuation correction. Again. Nekolla SG, Cabello J.

J Nucl Cardiol. 2016



Cardiac PET for translational imaging.: Rischpler C, Paschali A, Anagnostopoulos C, Nekolla SG.

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015 May;17(5):28. doi: 10.1007/s11886-015-0581-0.



PET/MRI of the heart.: Rischpler C, Nekolla SG, Kunze KP, Schwaiger M.

Semin Nucl Med. 2015 May;45(3):234-47. doi: 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2014.12.004.



Hybrid PET/MR imaging of the heart: potential, initial experiences, and future prospects.

Rischpler C, Nekolla SG, Dregely I, Schwaiger M. J Nucl Med. 2013 Mar;54(3):402-15. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.112.105353.



PET and SPECT in heart failure.: Rischpler C, Nekolla SG, Schwaiger M.

Curr Cardiol Rep. 2013 Mar;15(3):337. doi: 10.1007/s11886-012-0337-z..


Assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability by positron emission tomography.

Anagnostopoulos C, Georgakopoulos A, Pianou N, Nekolla SG.

Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 1;167(5):1737-49. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.12.009. Epub 2013 Jan 11.


The next generation of cardiac positron emission tomography imaging agents: discovery of flurpiridaz F-18 for detection of coronary disease.

Yu M, Nekolla SG, Schwaiger M, Robinson SP. Semin Nucl Med. 2011 Jul;41(4):305-13. doi: 10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2011.02.004.


Novel F-18-labeled PET myocardial perfusion tracers: bench to bedside.

Nekolla SG, Saraste A. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2011 Apr;13(2):145-50. doi: 10.1007/s11886-010-0159-9.


PET/CT challenge for the non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

Schwaiger M, Ziegler SI, Nekolla SG. Eur J Radiol. 2010 Mar;73(3):494-503. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.12.025.


Cardiovascular molecular imaging: an overview. Saraste A, Nekolla SG, Schwaiger M.

Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Sep 1;83(4):643-52. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp209.


PET and MRI in cardiac imaging: from validation studies to integrated applications.

Nekolla SG, Martinez-Moeller A, Saraste A. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009 Mar;36 Suppl 1:S121-30. doi: 10.1007/s00259-008-0980-1.


Stephan Nekolla, Ph.D., FESC
+49 (89) 4140 2959
Stephan.Nekolla@tum.de(link sends e-mail)




https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=nekolla-s&sort=date(link is external)

Esteban Solari, M.Sc.
Esteban Solari@tum.de(link sends e-mail)

Sandra Marwick, M.Sc.



  • July 2021: The added value of PSMA PET/MR radiomics for prostate cancer staging.
    Solari EL, Gafita A, Schachoff S, Bogdanović B, Villagrán Asiares A, Amiel T, Hui W, Rauscher I, Visvikis D, Maurer T, Schwamborn K, Mustafa M, Weber W, Navab N, Eiber M, Hatt M, Nekolla SG.
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s00259-021-05430-z

  • July 2021: Whole-body uptake classification and prostate cancer staging in 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT using dual-tracer learning.
    Capobianco N, Sibille L, Chantadisai M, Gafita A, Langbein T, Platsch G, Solari EL, Shah V, Spottiswoode B, Eiber M, Weber WA, Navab N, Nekolla SG.
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1007/s00259-021-05473-2
  • May 2021: MR-guided motion-corrected PET image reconstruction for cardiac PET MR. Munoz C, Ellis S, Nekolla SG, Kunze KP, Vitadello T, Neji R, Botnar RM, Schnabel JA, Reader AJ, Prieto C. J Nucl Med. 2021 May 28:jnumed.120.254235. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.120.254235

  • December 2020: Comparative preclinical biodistribution, dosimetry and endoradiotherapy in mCRPC using 19F/177Lu-rhPSMA-7.3 and 177Lu-PSMA I&T. Yusufi N, Wurzer A, Herz M, D'Alessandria C, Feuerecker B, Weber WA, Wester HJ, Nekolla SG, Eiber M
    J Nucl Med. 2020 Dec 18:jnumed.120.254516. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.120.254516. PMID: 33443072

  • April 2021: Imaging of cardiac fibroblast activation in a patient after acute myocardial infarction using 68Ga-FAPI-04.
    Notohamiprodjo S, Nekolla SG, Robu S, Villagran Asiares A, Kupatt C, Ibrahim T, Laugwitz KL, Makowski MR, Schwaiger M, Weber WA, Varasteh Z.
    J Nucl Cardiol. 2021 Apr 15. doi: 10.1007/s12350-021-02603-z



  • November 2020: Gating failure can result in underestimation of cardiac function in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.
    Villagran Asiares A, Yakushev I, Nekolla SG.
    J Nucl Cardiol. 2020 Nov 11. doi: 10.1007/s12350-020-02430-8

  • July 2020: Almost 10 years of PET/MR attenuation correction: the effect on lesion quantification with PSMA: clinical evaluation on 200 prostate cancer patients.
    Bogdanovic B, Gafita A, Schachoff S, Eiber M, Cabello J, Weber WA, Nekolla SG.  Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2020 Jul 28. doi: 10.1007/s00259-020-04957-x 

  • April 2018: Myocardial perfusion quantification using simultaneously acquired 13 NH3 -ammonia PET and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients at rest and stress. Kunze KP, Nekolla SG, Rischpler C, Zhang SH, Hayes C, Langwieser N, Ibrahim T, Laugwitz KL, Schwaiger M. Magn Reson Med. 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1002/mrm.27213. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29672922

  • December 2017: Targeting mannose receptor expression on macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-knockout mice using 111In-tilmanocept.
    Varasteh Z, Hyafil F, Anizan N, Diallo D, Aid-Launais R, Mohanta S, Li Y, Braeuer M, Steiger K, Vigne J, Qin Z, Nekolla SG, Fabre JE, Döring Y, Le Guludec D, Habenicht A, Vera DR, Schwaiger M.
    EJNMMI Res. 2017 Dec;7(1):40. doi: 10.1186/s13550-017-0287

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470406(link is external) 

CT-based SPECT attenuation correction and assessment of infarct size: results from a cardiac phantom study.

Kroiss AS, Nekolla SG, Dobrozemsky G, Grubinger T, Shulkin BL, Schwaiger M. Ann Nucl Med. 2017 Dec;31(10):764-772. doi: 10.1007/s12149-017-1211-2


  • March 2017:  Hyafil F, Pelisek J, Laitinen I, Schottelius M, Mohring M, Döring Y, van der Vorst EP, Kallmayer M, Steiger K, Poschenrieder A, Notni J, Fischer J, Baumgartner C, Rischpler C, Nekolla SG, Weber C, Eckstein HH, Wester HJ, Schwaiger M. Imaging the Cytokine Receptor CXCR4 in Atherosclerotic Plaques with the Radiotracer 68Ga-Pentixafor for PET.  J Nucl Med. 2017 Mar;58(3):499-506  

      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27789718(link is external)

  • November 2016: New publication: Zvereva A, Petoussi-Henss N, Li WB, Schlattl H, Oeh U, Zankl M, Graner FP, Hoeschen C, Nekolla SG, Parodi K, Schwaiger M
    Effect of blood activity on dosimetric calculations for radiopharmaceuticals.
    Phys Med Biol. 2016 Nov 7;61(21):7688-7703

  • August 2016: New publication: Dregely I, Koppara T, Nekolla SG, Nährig J, Kuhs K, Langwieser N, Dzijan-Horn M, Ganter C, Joner M, Laugwitz KL, Schwaiger M, Ibrahim T. Observations With Simultaneous 18F-FDG PET and MR Imaging in Peripheral Artery Disease. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Aug 20

  • July 2016: New publication: Kunze KP, Rischpler C, Hayes C, Ibrahim T, Laugwitz KL, Haase A, Schwaiger M, Nekolla SG. Measurement of extracellular volume and transit time heterogeneity using contrast-enhanced myocardial perfusion MRI in patients after acute myocardial infarction. Magn Reson Med. 2016 Jul 1. doi: 10.1002/mrm.26320 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27364875(link is external)

  • April 2016: Prospective Evaluation of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Postischemic Myocardium by Simultaneous Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Prognostic Marker of Functional Outcome.: Rischpler C, Dirschinger RJ, Nekolla SG, Kossmann H, Nicolosi S, Hanus F, van Marwick S, Kunze KP, Meinicke A, Götze K, Kastrati A, Langwieser N, Ibrahim T, Nahrendorf M, Schwaiger M, Laugwitz KL. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging.2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27056601

  • 14.12.2015: Upregulated myocardial CXCR4-expression after myocardial infarction assessed by simultaneous GA-68 pentixafor PET/MRI. Rischpler C, Nekolla SG, Kossmann H, Dirschinger RJ, Schottelius M, Hyafil F, Wester HJ, Laugwitz KL, Schwaiger M. J Nucl Cardiol. 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667813(link is external)


  • 04.10.2015: New publication: High-risk plaque features can be detected in non-stenotic carotid plaques of patients with ischaemic stroke classified as cryptogenic using combined 18F-FDG PET/MR imaging. Hyafil F, Schindler A, Sepp D, Obenhuber T, Bayer-Karpinska A, Boeckh-Behrens T, Höhn S, Hacker M, Nekolla SG, Rominger A, Dichgans M, Schwaiger M, Saam T, Poppert H. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2015 Oct 3. ) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26433367(link is external))

  • 27.8.2015: New book is out: C.D. Anagnostopoulos, A.Georgakopoulos, N. Pianou, and SG. Nekolla: Myocardial perfusion imaging with PET/SPECT: techniques as clinical applications in Farhood Saremi (Ed.): Perfusion Imaging in Clinical Practice, Wolters Luwer, 2015 (http://www.lww.com/Product/9781451193169(link is external))
  • 27.07.2015: New book by Thomas Schindler et al: Molecular and Multimodality Imaging in Cardiovascular Disease is out ! Contains our chapter on “PET/MRI for Cardiac Imaging: Technical Considerations and Potential Applications”
    http://www.springer.com/de/book/9783319196107(link is external)

  • 07.06.2015: Society of Nuclear Medicine, Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, USA: Christoph Rischpler received Cardiovascular Young Investigator
    Award and ERF-SNMMI Annual Meeting Travel Award
    http://www.snmmi.org/AboutSNMMI/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=13608(link is external)

  • 13.02.2015: Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging Paper is out ! Christoph Rischpler et al.:  PET/MRI early after myocardial infarction: evaluation of viability with late gadolinium enhancement transmurality vs. 18F-FDG uptake.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680385(link is external)

  • 09.09.2014: Eur Heart J Case  is out: Nicolas Langwieser et al. Confirmation of diagnosis and graduation of inflammatory activity of Loeffler endocarditis by hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging